Acid-base Balance Cases and Calculators

Clinical Cases

Acid-Base Practice Cases from the University of Connecticut.
Acid-Base Physiology Example Cases.
An approach to complex acid-base problems. Can Fam Physician. 2005 February 10; 51(2): 226–232.


MedCalc: Acid-Base Calculator. Calculates the compensation and suggests if the primary disorder is acute or chronic.
ECG: Arterial Blood Gases. Steve Anisman.
MDCalc: Anion Gap (w/Delta Gap)
Cleveland Clinics shares their Algorithms for Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU)

Mnemonic: ARMADA - acid-base balance work-up in 6 steps by answering 6 questions

1. A cidosis or Alkalosis?
2. R espiratory disorder? – acidosis or alkalosis – check PaCO2
3. M etabolic disorder? – acidosis or alkalosis – check HCO3
4. A nion Gap?
5. D elta AG?
6. A ssess compensation

Online Acid-Base. American Thoracic Society.
A stepwise approach to acid-base disorders. Postgraduate Medicine, 2000.
Top 10 Clinical Pearls in Acid-base Disorders. Resident and Staff Physician, Jan 2007.
Acid-Base/Electrolytes. UCSF Hospitalist Handbook, 2002.
Assessing acid–base disorders. Kidney International (2009) 76, 1239–1247.
Image source:, public domain.

Audio: Answer to new acidosis case. DB’s Medical Rants, 10/2008.
Student lecture on Acid-Base Balance. Precious Bodily Fluids, 02/2009.
Introducing the Acid-Base Machine. Precious Bodily Fluids, 04/2009.
On ABGs. DB’s Medical Rants, 09/2009.
Acid Base Disorders. John Doyle, MD.
Pulmonary Puzzle #007. Life in the Fast Lane, 2010.

Acid Base Handout (Student)
Publish at Scribd or explore others: Study Guides Academic Work osmolar gap delta gap Physiological Approach to Assessment of Acid–Base Disturbances — NEJM 2014


  1. Great links. Thank you for the usefulness of these links. The acid base balance is known to be hard to understand on textbooks w/o showing exercises. The Pubmed central article (one of the links) has many cases.

  2. Another classic acid-base article.

  3. Nice collection of links. I like ARMADA but it should also contain osmolar gap. I'm going to think about that but I bet this will be incorporated into my next lecture.

  4. Thank you for your comment and sharing the lecture.

  5. I updated the lecture and broke your imbed. Sorry. You can get the correct code from

  6. Fixed with the new embed code. Thank you for letting me know.