Here is a video from the Cleveland Clinic:
Key risk factors for drowning are:
- male sex
- age of less than 14 years
- alcohol use
- low income
- poor education
- rural residency
- aquatic exposure
- risky behavior
- lack of supervision
For people with epilepsy, the risk of drowning is 15 to 19 times as high as the risk for those who do not have epilepsy.
For every person who dies from drowning, another four persons receive care in the emergency department for nonfatal drowning.
Drowning Doesn’t Look Like Drowning
- Except in rare circumstances, drowning people are physiologically unable to call out for help. The respiratory system was designed for breathing. Speech is the secondary or overlaid function. Breathing must be fulfilled, before speech occurs.
- Drowning people’s mouths alternately sink below and reappear above the surface of the water.
- The mouths of drowning people are not above the surface of the water long enough for them to exhale, inhale, and call out for help. When the drowning people’s mouths are above the surface, they exhale and inhale quickly as their mouths start to sink below the surface of the water.
- Drowning people cannot wave for help. Nature instinctively forces them to extend their arms laterally and press down on the water’s surface. Pressing down on the surface of the water, permits drowning people to leverage their bodies so they can lift their mouths out of the water to breathe.
- Throughout the Instinctive Drowning Response, drowning people cannot voluntarily control their arm movements. Physiologically, drowning people who are struggling on the surface of the water cannot stop drowning and perform voluntary movements such as waving for help, moving toward a rescuer, or reaching out for a piece of rescue equipment.
- From beginning to end of the Instinctive Drowning Response people’s bodies remain upright in the water, with no evidence of a supporting kick. Unless rescued by a trained lifeguard, these drowning people can only struggle on the surface of the water from 20 to 60 seconds before submersion occurs.
Drowning Doesn’t Look Like Drowning. Mario Vittone.On Scene Magazine: Fall 2006 (page 14)
Drowning - free NEJM review, 2012 http://goo.gl/xSqLu