What are the New Risk Markers for Coronary Heart Disease?

Traditional CHD risk factors used in the Framingham risk score (FRS) predictions include:

- age
- gender
- systolic blood pressure
- treatment of hypertension
- total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels
- smoking
- diabetes

The newer CHD risk factors include:

- N-terminal fragment of prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide levels
- von Willebrand factor antigen levels
- fibrinogen levels
- chronic kidney disease
- leukocyte count
- C-reactive protein levels
- homocysteine levels
- uric acid levels
- coronary artery calcium [CAC] scores
- carotid intima–media thickness
- peripheral arterial disease
- pulse wave velocity

Adding coronary artery calcium [CAC] scores to the FRS improved the accuracy of risk predictions.

Levels of N-terminal fragment of prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide also improved risk predictions but to a lesser extent.

Improvements in predictions with other newer markers were marginal.

References:

Evaluation of Newer Risk Markers for Coronary Heart Disease Risk Classification: A Cohort Study. Maryam Kavousi et al. Ann Intern Med. 20 March 2012;156(6):438-444.
Image source: Gray's Anatomy, 1918, public domain.

Comments from Twitter:

Michael Mirochna, MD @DocRockne:  unfortunately, no evidence they help with OUTCOMES

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