Age-related macular degeneration - 2012 Lancet review

From the The Lancet:

Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness worldwide. With ageing populations in many countries, more than 20% might have the disorder.

Advanced age-related macular degeneration is associated with progressive visual impairment. It includes two subtypes:

- neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet)
- geographic atrophy (late dry) macular degeneration

What are the risk factors for macular degeneration?

Major risk factors include:

- cigarette smoking
- nutritional factors
- cardiovascular diseases
- genetic markers, including genes regulating complement, lipid, angiogenic, and extracellular matrix pathways

How to diagnose macular degeneration?

Accurate diagnosis combines clinical examination and investigations including:

- retinal photography
- angiography
- optical coherence tomography

What is the treatment for macular degeneration?

Dietary anti-oxidant supplementation slows progression of the disease. Taking lutein 10 mg po daily may help (see the DW video below).

Treatment for neovascular age-related (wet) macular degeneration includes intraocular injections of anti-VEGF agents. The two commonly used anti-VEGF therapies, ranibizumab and bevacizumab, have similar efficacy.

Future treatments include inhibition of other angiogenic factors, and regenerative and topical therapies.

Saving Eyesight | In Good Shape - DW Interview. Dr. Manfred Tetz talks about both sudden and creeping loss of vision. The eye specialist reviews the warning signs for a retinal detachment or a retinal vein occlusion and what can be done about them.


Age-related macular degeneration. The Lancet, Volume 379, Issue 9827, Pages 1728 - 1738, 5 May 2012.
Image source: Wikimedia Commons.

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