Clinical presentations vary dependent on:
- time of onset of androgen deficiency
- whether the defect is in testosterone production or spermatogenesis
- associated genetic factors
- history of androgen therapy
Diagnosis of hypogonadism is made on the basis of:
- signs and symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency
- low morning testosterone concentrations in serum on multiple occasions
Several testosterone-replacement therapies are approved.
Contraindications to testosterone-replacement therapy include:
- prostate and breast cancers
- uncontrolled congestive heart failure
- severe lower-urinary-tract symptoms
Male hypogonadism - The Lancet http://bit.ly/1eh9f3R
Image source: The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. Wikipedia, public domain.