Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to detrimental outcomes, such as:
- worse psychological well-being
- higher cognitive distraction
- poorer academic outcomes
Problematic smartphone use (PSU) is strongly related to social media use.
The study participants were 415 Estonian university students aged 19-46 years (79% females).
Problematic smartphone use (PSU) and the frequency of social media use in lectures were negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning (defined as learning for understanding) and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning (defined as superficial learning).
Mediation analysis showed that social media use in lectures completely mediates the relationship between PSU and approaches to learning. These results indicate that the frequency of social media use in lectures might explain the relationships between poorer academic outcomes and PSU.
Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Jan 8;15(1). pii: E92. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15010092.